When many people see this topic, the first feeling is what does this have to do with me? In fact, there are many types of sexually transmitted diseases(STDs), and half of them will have sexually transmitted diseases during their lifetime.
More than 1 million people worldwide receive sexually transmitted infections every day.
An estimated 357 million people are newly infected each year with one of the following four sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis.
More than 500 million people are estimated to be infected with genital herpes virus.
More than 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV)
Most sexually transmitted infections have no symptoms or only mild symptoms that may not be identified as sexually transmitted infections.
Sexually transmitted infections such as herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis may increase the risk of contracting HIV.
In 2012, more than 900,000 pregnant women were infected with syphilis, resulting in nearly 350,000 cases of bad delivery, including stillbirths.
In some cases, sexually transmitted infections, in addition to the direct effects of the infection itself, can also have serious consequences through mother-to-child transmission of infections and chronic diseases.
Drug resistance, especially resistance to gonorrhea, is a major threat to reducing sexually transmitted infections worldwide.
What is Sexually transmitted infections (STI)
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are diseases that are transmitted by sexual behavior (vaginal, anal, and oral sex). Most sexually transmitted diseases do not have any symptoms at the beginning, so many people will spread without their knowledge.
Give yourself a sexual partner. Proper and consistent use of condoms is one of the most effective ways to prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Female condoms are safe and effective, but they are not as widely used as male condoms.
More than 30 bacteria, viruses and parasites are known to spread through sexual contact. Eight of these pathogens have the highest incidence of disease. Of the eight infections, four are currently curable, namely syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis.
The other four are incurable viral infections, namely hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus, HIV and human papillomavirus. Symptoms or diseases caused by these incurable viral infections can be alleviated or ameliorated by treatment.
A correct understanding of what is sexually transmitted diseases, the type of sexually transmitted diseases, and how to prevent them are very important.
Common types of sexually transmitted diseases
In addition to the following types, there are many common sexually transmitted diseases. If you have any related symptoms, you need to consult a doctor in time.
Because most sexually transmitted diseases have no symptoms, it is highly recommended that people with sexual behavior receive relevant medical examinations each year to protect themselves and their partners’ health.
Chlamydia disease: It is a common sexually transmitted disease that is easily cured. Chlamydia disease can cause difficulties for women to become pregnant if left untreated.
Chlamydia disease is a common STI that can be infected by both men and women.
Chlamydia disease can cause serious permanent damage to the female reproductive system, making it difficult for women to conceive or even conceive in the future. Chlamydia disease can also cause potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy.
Anal sex, vaginal or oral sex with a person with chlamydial disease may cause you a chlamydial disease.
Because chlamydial disease can be transmitted through oral and anal sex, homosexual, bisexual, and other males who have sex with men also have an infection risk.
If your sexual partner is a male, even if he is not ejaculated, you may still suffer from chlamydia disease, which is why you must use the condom throughout your sexual intercourse.
You can prevent chlamydia disease by:
Avoid sexual behavior; maintain a long-term, single sexual relationship with a partner who has been tested and has a negative STD test; use latex condoms and oral films correctly for each sexual activity.
Pregnant women with chlamydial disease may transmit chlamydial disease to your fetus during childbirth. This can lead to eye infections or pneumonia in newborns.
Chlamydia disease is also more likely to premature birth. If you are pregnant, chlamydia should be tested at the first prenatal check. Detection and treatment are the best ways to prevent health problems.
Most people with chlamydial disease do not develop symptoms.
Women with symptoms may notice
Abnormal vaginal secretions;
There is a burning sensation when urinating.
Symptoms that may occur in men include
Secretions appear in the urethra;
There is a burning sensation when urinating;
One or two testicular pains and swelling.
Chlamydia disease can be cured by proper treatment. Taking the right medicine will stop the infection and reduce your chances of complications in the future. Chlamydia drugs should not be shared with anyone.
If you are a woman, untreated chlamydial disease may spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes (the tube that delivers fertilized eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID often has no symptoms, but some women may experience abdominal and pelvic pain.
Even if symptoms are not initially caused, PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system and cause long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy).
There are few health problems associated with chlamydia in men. Infections sometimes spread to the vas deferens (sending sperm from the testicles), causing pain and fever.
In a few cases, chlamydial disease can lead to male infertility. Untreated chlamydial disease may also increase the likelihood of infection or HIV transmission.
Gonorrhea: Any person who is sexually active may have gonorrhea. If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause very serious complications, but correct medication can cure gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease and both men and women may develop gonorrhea. It can occur in the genital, rectal, and throat infections. Gonorrhea is a common infectious disease in younger populations.
There is a chance of contracting gonorrhea during anal sex, vaginal or oral sex with gonorrhea patients. Pregnant women with gonorrhea may also transmit gonorrhea to the fetus during childbirth.
You can prevent gonorrhea by:
Avoid sexual behavior;
Maintain a long-term, single sexual relationship with a partner who has been tested and has a negative STD test result;
In each sexual activity, the correct use of latex condoms and oral films, some men with gonorrhea may have no relevant symptoms.
Symptoms of gonorrhea:
There is a burning sensation when urinating;
The genitals discharge white, yellow or green secretions;
Testicular pain or swelling (not common) ;
Most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. Even if there are, these symptoms are usually mild and often mistaken for bladder or vaginal infections.
Female gonorrhea patients may cause serious complications, even if they do not show any gonorrhea-related symptoms.
Symptoms of female patients include:
Pain or burning sensation during urination;
Increased vaginal discharge;
Interphase vaginal bleeding;
Rectal infections may not cause any symptoms, or may cause the following symptoms in men and women:
If you have any of the above symptoms or if your partner has STI or STI symptoms (such as abnormal pain, odor in secretions, burning sensation during urination, or inter-menstrual bleeding), you should be examined by a doctor.
Gonorrhea can be cured as long as the correct treatment is taken. Do not share gonorrhea medication with others.
Although the drug is effective in preventing infection, the drug does not work for any permanent damage caused by the disease.
If left untreated, women with gonorrhea may have pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Forming scar tissue that blocks the fallopian tube;
Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy);
Infertility (cannot be pregnant);
Long-term pain in the pelvic/abdominal cavity.
For male gonorrhea patients, the tube connected to the testicles can be painful. In rare cases, gonorrhea can lead to male infertility or the inability of men to have offspring.
In rare cases, untreated gonorrhea may spread to your blood or joints. This situation will be life threatening.
If left untreated, gonorrhea may increase the risk of developing or spreading AIDS – the possibility of HIV.
HPV: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Some of the health effects of HPV can be prevented by vaccines.
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can be infected by both men and women. Almost all sexually active men and women will be exposed at certain times during their lifetime.
There are many different types of HPV. Some types can cause health problems, including genital warts and cancer. Vaccines can prevent these health problems from occurring.
Oral, vaginal or anal sex with a person carrying HPV may infect you with HPV. Transmission through vaginal or anal sex is most common.
HPV can spread even if the infected person does not have any signs or symptoms. Sexual activists may be infected with HPV even if they only have sex with one person.
In most cases, HPV will disappear on its own without any health problems. However, if HPV persists, it can cause health problems such as genital warts and cancer.
Genital warts usually manifest as small masses or masses in the genital area. The mass may be large or small, and may be convex or flat, or in the shape of a cauliflower.
HPV can cause cervical and other cancers, including vulvar, vaginal, penile or anal cancer. It can also cause cancer at the base of the throat, including the tongue and the bottom of the tonsils (called oropharyngeal cancer).
There are a few things you can do to reduce the chance of getting HPV infected:
1. Active vaccination. The HPV vaccine is safe and effective, protecting men and women from diseases caused by HPV, including cancer.
2. Receive cervical cancer screening. Regular screening of women between the ages of 21 and 65 can prevent cervical cancer.
3. If you are a sexual activist
Use condoms correctly every time you have sex. This can reduce your chances of getting HPV infected.
However, HPV may infect parts of the condom that are not covered, so condoms do not provide complete protection against HPV infection.
Maintain a single sexual relationship with each other, or only with someone who has sex with you alone.
Most people infected with HPV do not know that they are infected and have never experienced symptoms or health problems. Some people found that they were infected with HPV when they developed genital warts.
Women can be found to be infected with HPV from abnormal Pap test results (at the time of cervical cancer screening). Others will only find out if there are more serious problems with HPV, such as cancer.
Syphilis: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that, if left untreated, can lead to very serious complications that can be easily cured with the right treatment.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that, if not treated properly, can cause long-term complications and/or death. Adult symptoms are divided into multiple stages. Including initial, secondary, recessive and late syphilis.
Direct contact with syphilis ulcers during anal sex, vaginal or oral sex can cause syphilis. Ulcers can occur in the penis, vagina, anus, rectum or lips and mouth. Syphilis may also be transmitted through mother to child.
You can prevent syphilis in the following ways:
Avoid sexual behavior;
Maintain long-term, single sexual relationship with partners who have been tested and have negative STD test results; use latex condoms and oral films correctly during each sexual activity, and genital urination, urination or lavage after sexual relationship Avoid infection with syphilis.
Pregnant women with syphilis may transmit syphilis to the fetus. Infection with syphilis may result in low birth weight infants. The likelihood of premature birth or stillbirth (fetal death) is also higher.
The syphilis test should be performed during pregnancy and during childbirth. If the test result is positive, receive immediate treatment.
Infected babies are born with no signs or symptoms of the disease. However, if left untreated, the baby may have serious problems within a few weeks. Untreated babies may have health problems such as cataracts, deafness, or epilepsy, and may die.
Adult syphilis symptoms are divided into multiple stages:
In the early stages of syphilis, a single ulcer may be found, but multiple ulcers may also occur. The ulcer reflects the part of the body that syphilis invades. Ulcers are usually firm, round, and pain free.
Because the ulcer has no pain, it is easily overlooked. Ulcers last for 3 to 6 weeks and will heal regardless of treatment. But even if the ulcer disappears, you must still be treated to prevent the infection from entering the second phase.
In the second phase, you may develop a rash and/or an oral, vaginal or anal ulcer (also known as mucosal damage). This phase usually begins with a rash on one or more parts of the body.
The rash may appear when the initial ulcer is healed or after the ulcer has healed for a few weeks. A rash may appear as a rough, red or reddish-brown spot on the palm and/or sole of the foot.
The rash usually doesn’t itch, sometimes it’s very inconspicuous, you won’t even find it. Other symptoms that may occur are fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, large alopecia, headache, weight loss, muscle aches and fatigue.
If not treated properly, your infection will enter a recessive phase and may enter the late stages of syphilis.
Recessive and late stages
The recessive phase of syphilis begins after all previous symptoms have disappeared. If you do not receive treatment, your body will continue to have syphilis for many years without any signs or symptoms. Most untreated people with syphilis do not develop advanced syphilis.
Once it happens, it is very serious and may occur 10 to 30 years after the start of the infection. Late symptoms of syphilis include difficulty in coordination of muscle movement, paralysis, numbness, blindness, and dementia. In the late stages of syphilis, the disease can damage the internal organs and can lead to death.
Use the right antibiotics to cure syphilis. But treatment cannot eliminate any damage that has been caused by the infection.
It is also worth noting that infection with a syphilis cannot avoid re-infection. Even if it has been successfully treated, it is still possible to re-infect.
STI risk factors
Includes sexual behaviors that increase the risk of STI exposure and risk groups with a high prevalence of STI
Behavioral risk factors include:
- There are new sexual partners in the past 60 days; there are multiple sexual partners, or multiple sexual partners at the same time
- Those who do not maintain a single sexual relationship with each other do not use or sometimes do not use condoms
- Conducting transactions for money or drugs
- Sexual contact with sex workers (oral, anal, penis or vagina)
The risk population is a demographic population identified as having a high prevalence of STI:
- Young (15-24 years old)
- Have a history of STI
- Non-marital status
- Low socioeconomic status, or education level is high school or below
- Use illegal drugs
1. Partly taken from the school sexual health volunteer project data, the link cannot be published due to personal privacy, and the consent has been obtained.
2. World Health Organization http://www.who.int
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) https://www.cdc.gov/std/