Etiology of AIDS
AIDS originated in Africa. It also spread among Haitian youth in 1979 and was brought to the United States by immigrants. In 1981, after a retrovirus was reported to be capable of destroying the human immune system in the United States, Montagnier et al. of Pasteur Institute in France first isolated a virus, then named lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV).
In 1984, Gallo et al. isolated the virus from the living tissues of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, named HTLV-III. In the same year, Levy isolated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related virus (ARV). These viruses were identified as the same viruses and belonged to the retrovirus family.
Subsequently, in July 1986, it was unified named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by the International Committee on Classification of Viruses, also known as HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a RNA virus, which can be cultured in vitro in lymphocyte lines.
It belongs to the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae. So far, two types of human immunodeficiency virus have been found: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2).
Symptoms of AIDS
1. Acute infection stage: After HIV infection, HIV stimulates the body to cause immune response. Thereafter, it entered a period of asymptomatic infection with varying length and relative health.
2. Stage of asymptomatic infection: In addition to positive serum HIV antibodies, the number of T cells can be progressively reduced. But the virus continues to replicate, and infected people are already infectious.
3. Pre-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is also called “persistant generalized lymphadenectasis syndrom (PGLS)”, “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related complex (ARC)” and so on.
4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome stage clinical symptoms: In addition to the characteristics of the early stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, there are obvious fever, fatigue, night sweating, uncontrollable weight loss (>10%), persistent diarrhea, persistent fever (>38 C) for more than three months, and other clinical manifestations of severe immunodeficiency, such as delayed cellular immune response, opportunities.
Sexual infections and malignant tumors can affect all systems and organs of the body, and there are often many pathogens causing infection and cancer coexist.
Prevention of AIDS
1. Strengthen self-protection awareness
Understand HIV; Do not engage in unprotected sex, use condoms; Do not share needles with others, use sterilized syringes; Carefully use blood products.
2. Specific prevention
A) With the American CDC classification diagnostic criteria in 1993, the diagnostic scope of AIDS has been expanded, which is conducive to the prevention and treatment of AIDS. According to the decrease of CD4T lymphocyte, certain dosage has been given.
B) AIDS Vaccine: The United States carried out the second phase of 296 trials of two AIDS vaccines containing gp120 ingredients, which were temporarily terminated because six people had been infected. Thailand is experimenting with UBI synthetic vaccine.
C) Blocking mother-to-child transmission: CD4 + T lymphocyte >; 200/ml of AIDS pregnant women, using AIT in antenatal, intrapartum and infant treatment, has a certain protective effect.
3. Comprehensive prevention
A) Popularize AIDS prevention knowledge, understand the transmission routes, clinical manifestations and prevention methods;
B) Strengthen moral education, prohibit indiscriminate intercourse, especially sexual disorder with foreigners, and ban prostitutes;
C) Avoid sexual contact with HIV-infected persons, AIDS patients and high-risk groups;
D) It is forbidden to share syringes and needles with the patients with intravenous drug concealment.
E) When using imported blood, blood components and blood products, HIV testing must be carried out.
F) Domestic blood donors should be strictly selected, and HIV negative test should be gradually carried out in order to supply blood and strictly prevent the spread of HIV.
G) Blood donors, organs, tissues and semen donors should be tested for HIV; H) Establishment of AIDS testing centers;
I) Promoting condom use and avoiding anal intercourse;
J) Pregnancy should be avoided for people living with AIDS or HIV, and breastfeeding should be avoided for babies born.